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Macrofungi of Costa Rica

The main goals of the project have been met or exceeded. These included documenting the mycota through field work, developing a comprehensive database of collections, improving facilities for mycological studies in Costa Rica, and training students. The development of this web site was an added feature.

Field Work.--The PIs and the project's Postdoctoral Research Associate made extensive collections during multiple field trips each year since July 1993. The three Costa Rican graduate students trained through this project (see section on education below) regularly collected during each rainy season since August 1993. Long-term study plots/areas were developed at four sites (San Gerardo de Dota and Jard�n de Dota in the Cordillera Talamanca, and Prusia and Bosque del Ni�o in the Cordillera Central). Luís D. Gómez continued his long-term sampling of the mycota in the southern Talamanca mountains. Over 2000 collections consisting of over 400 identified species and a large number of undescribed taxa were obtained during this field work. Based on the number of previously uncollected and undescribed species found on each trip, we believe extensive additional collecting will be necessary to document the agaric mycota of Costa Rican forests. These collections are deposited in the Mycological Herbarium, University of Costa Rica and /or at INBio (Costa Rican National Biodiversity Institute) with duplicates housed at The Field Museum or The New York Botanical Garden.

Development of comprehensive database.-- Specimens obtained during field work, as well as historical specimens, have been entered into databases residing at FMNH, NYBG, and INBio, and UCR. These data are searchable at the following URLS: http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/hcol/cric/index.asp and http://emuweb.fieldmuseum.org/botany/search_crf.php.

Upgrading Mycological Facilities in Costa Rica.-- Laptop computers, cameras, geopositioning devices, and literature were purchased for the mycology programs at the University of Costa Rica and Las Cruces Biological Station to facilitate databasing, describing specimens, and georeferencing collections. Improvements in the Mycological Herbarium at the University of Costa Rica included the purchase of specimen boxes to store collections, new herbarium cabinets, and air conditioner and dehumidifiers to provide appropriate environmental conditions in the herbarium for the long-term preservation of collections. The purchase and/or donation of pertinent mycological literature is ongoing. A new 4-wheel drive vehicle was purchased for use by the project and by the School of Biology at UCR. New herbarium cabinets, computers, and a camera were purchased for INBio through this grant and the NIH supplement.

Student Training.-- Three Costa Rican students have been trained through this project. Loengrin Umaña Tenorio and Milagro Mata Hidalgo defended their theses in March 1995 and received degrees of Licenciatura (Mata Hidalgo, 1995; Uma�a Tenorio, 1995). Milagro Mata Hidalgo has moved on to the first Mycology Curator position at INBio (funded by NIH, see below, under expansion of project). Recently, Loengrin Umaña has also been hired at INBio as an Assistant Curator. Juan Luis Mata finished a M.S. degree in November 1997. He has now completed his Ph.D. at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville in fungal systematics. The PIs and Postdoc served as members of the committees for each of these students. Additional undergraduates at UCR have been exposed to organismal level biology through their work in the fungal herbarium. The grant's Postdoctoral Research Associate, A. E. Franco-Molano obtained much field and herbarium experience through this project in addition to extensive informal teaching experience. She is now a Professor at the Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia where she has developed an active research and teaching program in mycology. Additionally, five North American students participated in field trips to introduce them to tropical mycology. Three of these students were funded by sources other than the grant. Also, three North American agaric specialists participated in field work to enhance their collaboration on the project; they were funded by sources other than the grant. Juan Luis Mata and Julieta Carranza conducted research at NYBG (trips paid by NYBG) and the Field Museum (supported by the grant). Milagro Mata Hidalgo spent two weeks at the Field Museum working on Costa Rican collections and learning fungal culture techniques. Mueller, through his NIH funded project (see below), hired and trained INBio's first fungal curator and parataxonomist, Milagro Mata and Carolina Cano, respectively.

Expansion of Project.-- Mueller received a grant from the joint NIH-NSF Bioprospecting Opportunity Awards Program (BOA) to expand this project to include screening collections for anti-AIDs and anti-cancer compounds. This project is a cooperation between Field Museum, INBio, and The U.S. National Cancer Institute. This project provided support and training for Milagro Mata, Curator of Macrofungi, INBio, and Carolina Cano, INBio's first fungal parataxonomist plus equipment and supplies that helped establish the herbarium and mycology program at INBio.

A supplement was obtained by Halling from NSF to fund a weeklong "Workshop on Basidiomycetes." 18 students and professors from Guatamala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Panama attended. The workshop was held in November 2001 at the QERC Research Station in San Gerardo de Dota. A second workshop was held in June 2003, at Santa Rosa in Guanacaste Province.

Map: 

Products by PIs, Students and Primary Costa Rican Collaborators Resulting from Grant Support.--

Symposia Organized

  • Mueller, G. M. and R. E. Halling. 1994. Neotropical Holobasidiomycetes: A Preliminary Assessment of Biodiversity and Distribution Based on Studies in Costa Rica and Colombia. Fifth International Mycological Congress, Vancouver, B.C.
  • Mueller, G. M. 1997. Assessing Costa Rican Fungal Diversity. ATB/OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting, San Jos�, Costa Rica.
  • Mueller, G. M., J. P. Schmit, and R. Courtecuisse. 2002. Fungal biodiversity: What do we know? What can we predict? 7th International Mycological Congress, Oslo, Norway.
  • Baroni, T. J. and R. E. Halling. 2002. Diversity of neotropical fungi. 7th International Mycological Congress, Oslo, Norway.

Edited Books and Book Length Treatments (reviewed)

  • Carranza, J. and G. M. Mueller, eds. 1996. Fungi of Costa Rica: Selected studies on ecology and biodiversity. Revista de Biolog�a Tropical. Vol 44 Supplement 4: 1-152. [contains 13 contributed chapters on Costa Rican macrofungi and one on Costa Rican microfungi.]
  • Mata, M. 1999. Macrohongos de Costa Rica. Vol. 1. INBio, Santo Domingo, Costa Rica. 253 p.
  • Mata, M., R. E. Halling, and G. M. Mueller. 2003. Macrohongos de Costa Rica. Vol. 2. INBio, Santo Domingo, Costa Rica. 240 p.
  • Mueller, G. M. and Q.-X. Wu, eds. 1997. Mycological Contributions of Rolf Singer: Field Itinerary, Index to New Taxa, and List of Publications. Fieldiana, Botany: n.s., 38. 124 pp. [includes information on hundreds of species described from Central America and northern South America, including 66 from Costa Rica, plus a list of all of Rolf Singer's Costa Rican publications]
  • Mueller, G. M., G. Bills, M. S. Foster, eds. 2004. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Fungi. Smithsonian Institution Press,Washington. [Chapters on macrofungi cover procedures being used in Costa Rican work as well as methods for all fungi, including the other fungal groups included in the Costa Rican National Inventory.]

Halling, R. E. and G. M. Mueller. 2005. Common Mushrooms of the Talamanca Mountains, Costa Rica. New York Botanical Garden Press. 195 p. available for purchase on-line.]

Reviewed Papers

  • Amtoft, A., R. E. Halling, and G. M. Mueller. 2002 [2003]. Tylopilus alkalixanthus, a new species of Boletaceae from Costa Rica and Japan. Brittonia 54: 262-265.
  • Antonín, V., R. E. Halling, and M. E. Noordeloos. 1997. Generic concepts within the groups of Marasmius and Collybia sensu lato. Mycotaxon 60: 359-368. [Data on Costa Rican material helped formulate these concepts.]
  • Baroni, T. J. and R. E. Halling. 2000. Some Entolomataceae (Agaricales) from Costa Rica. Brittonia 52: 121-135.
  • Buyck, B. and R. E. Halling. 2004. Two new Quercus-associated Russulas from Costa Rica and their relation to some very rare North American species. Crypt. (Mycol.) 25: 3-13
  • Carranza, J. 1996. Distribution of Pore Fungi (Aphyllophorales, Basidiomycotina) on the different biotic units in Costa Rica. Pp. 103-110 in: Carranza, J. and G. M. Mueller, eds. Fungi of Costa Rica: Selected studies on ecology and biodiversity. Revista de Biolog�a Tropical. Vol 44 Supplement 4.
  • Desjardin, D. E., R. E. Halling, B. A. Perry. 1997. Gymnopus villosipes: a common collybioid agaric from California. Mycotaxon 60: 141-147.
  • Desjardin, D. E., R. E. Halling, D. E. Hemmes. 1999. Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands. 5: The genera Rhodocollybia and Gymnopus. Mycologia 91: 166-176.
  • Eyssartier, G., B. Buyck, and R. E. Halling. 2003. Une nouvelle chanterelle du Costa Rica: Cantharellus atrolilacinus sp. nov. Crypt. (Mycol.) 24: 21-25.
  • Franco-M., A. E., R. Aldana-G., and R. E. Halling. 2000. Setas de Colombia (Agaricales, Boletales y otras Hongos), Guía de Campo. COLCIENCIAS—Universidad de Antioquia. 156 pp.
  • Gómez, L. D. 1996a. Basidiomycetes de Costa Rica. 8. De Russulae novae. Pp. 25-38 in: Carranza, J. and G. M. Mueller, eds. Fungi of Costa Rica: Selected studies on ecology and biodiversity. Revista de Biología Tropical. Vol 44 Supplement 4.
  • Gómez, L. D. 1996b. Basidiomycetes de Costa Rica. 9. Xerocomus, Chalciporus, Pulveroboletus, Boletellus, Xanthoconium (Agaricales, Boletaceae). Pp. 59-90 in: Carranza, J. and G. M. Mueller, eds. Fungi of Costa Rica: Selected studies on ecology and biodiversity. Revista de Biología Tropical. Vol 44 Supplement 4.
  • Halling, R. E. 1996a. Boletaceae (Agaricales): Latitudinal biodiversity and biological interactions in Costa Rica and Colombia. Pp. 111-114 in: Carranza, J. and G. M. Mueller, eds. Fungi of Costa Rica: Selected studies on ecology and biodiversity. Revista de Biolog�a Tropical. Vol 44 Supplement 4.
  • Halling, R. E. 1996b. Recommendations for collecting mushrooms for scientific study. Pp. 135-141 in: M. N. Alexiades, ed. Selected guidelines for Ethnobotanical research: A field manual. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Halling, R. E. 1997. Notes on Collybia V. Section Levipedes in tropical South America, with comments on section Collybia. Brittonia 48: 487-494.
  • Halling, R. E. 1998. Generic affinity of Boletus separans. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 36: 239-243.
  • Halling, R. E. 1999. New Leccinum species from Costa Rica. Kew Bull. 54: 747-753.
  • Halling, R. E. 2001. Ectomycorrhizae: Co-evolution, significance and biogeography. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 5-13.
  • Halling, R. E. and E. Both. 1998. Generic affinity of Boletus separans. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 36: 239-243.
  • Halling, R. E. and A. E. Franco-M. 1996. Agaricales from Costa Rica: New taxa with ornamented spores. Mycologia 88: 666-670.
  • Halling, R. E. and G. M. Mueller. 1999a. New boletes from Costa Rica. Mycologia 91: 893-899.
  • Halling, R. E. and G. M. Mueller. 1999b. A new species and a new record for the genus Xerula (Agaricales) from Costa Rica. Mycotaxon 71: 105-110.
  • Halling, R. E. and G. M. Mueller. 2001. Tylopilus bulbosus sp. nov. from Costa Rica. Harvard Papers in Botany 6: 109-112.
  • Halling, R. E. and G. M. Mueller. 2002. Agarics and boletes of Neotropical oakwoods. In: Tropical Mycology, Watling, R., J. C. Frankland, A. M. Ainsworth, S. Isaac, and C. H. Robinson, eds. CABI Publishing, UK, p. 1-10.
  • Halling, R. E. and G. M. Mueller. 2003. Leccinum (Boletaceae) in Costa Rica. Mycologia 95: 488-499.
  • Halling, R. E., M. Mata, and G. M. Mueller. 2004. Three new boletes for Costa Rica. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 89: 141-147.
  • Halling, R. E., G. M. Mueller, and M. J. Dallwitz. 1999c. A new Phylloporus (Basidiomycetes, Boletaceae) with a key to species in Colombia and Costa Rica. Mycotaxon 73: 63-67.
  • Huhndorf, S. M., R. E. Halling, G. M. Mueller, F. A. Fernandez. 2003. The Costa Rican mycology training workshops. Inoculum 54(2): 1-4.
  • Lodge, D. J. et. al. (including R. E. Halling and G. M. Mueller). 1995. A survey of patterns of diversity in non-lichenized fungi. Mitteilungen der Eidgenossischen Forschungsanstalt fur Wald, Schnee und Landschaft 70: 157-173.
  • Mata, J. L., R. E. Halling, and R. H. Petersen. 2004. New species and mating system reports in Gymnopus (Agaricales) from Costa Rica. Fungal Diversity 16: 113-129.
  • Mata, J. L., R. E. Halling, K. W. Hughes, and R. H. Petersen. 2004. Rhodocollybia (Agaricales) in neotropical montane forests. Mycological Progress 3: 337-351.
  • Mueller, G. M. 1996. Distribution and species composition of Laccaria (Agaricales) in tropical and subtropical America. Pp. 131-136 in: Carranza, J. and G. M. Mueller, eds. Fungi of Costa Rica: Selected studies on ecology and biodiversity. Revista de Biología Tropical. Vol 44 Supplement 4.
  • Mueller, G. M. and R. E. Halling. 1995. Evidence for high biodiversity of Agaricales (Fungi) in neotropical montane Quercus forests. Pp. 303-312 in Churchill, S. et al., eds. Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests. The New York Botanical Garden Press.
  • Mueller, G. M., T. E. O'Dell, S. M. Huhndorf, P. R. Leacock, and D. Linder. Example sampling designs for macrofungi. In: Mueller, G. M., G. Bills, and M. S. Foster, eds. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Fungi. Smithsonian Press.
  • Mueller, G. M. and B. A. Strack. Assessing phylogenetic relationships of Ticodendron incognitum to other neotropical trees using below ground symbionts. (submitted to Am. J. Bot).
  • Schmit, J. P., J. M. Murphy, and G. M. Mueller. Macrofungal diversity in a temperate oak forest. (submitted to Canad. J. Bot.). [assesses the efficacy of the plot based methods used in our studies in the Midwestern U.S., Costa Rica, and China].
  • Wu, Q.-X. and G. M. Mueller. 1995. The genus Craterellus (Basidiomycetes, Aphyllophorales) in Costa Rica and Colombia. Doc. Mycol. 25: 487-496.
  • Abstracts of Papers Presented Ammirati, J., M. Seidl, R. E. Halling, and G. M. Mueller. 1998. The genus Cortinarius (Agaricales), subgenus Myxacium in Costa Rica. Inoculum 49(2): 7. (abstr.)
  • Carranza, J. 1997. Comparative studies of Costa Rican and Thailand Polypores. ATB/OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts. pp. 44-45.
  • Franco-M., A. E. 1994. The genus Lepiota sensu lato in tropical America with emphasis on Costa Rica and Colombia. Abstracts from the Fifth International Mycological Congress. p. 65.
  • Franco-M., A. E. 1997. Diversity and distribution of Agaricaceae in Costa Rica and Colombia. ATB/OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts. p. 59.
  • Halling, R. E. 1994a. An alternative concept of Collybia. Abstracts from the Fifth International Mycological Congress. p. 80.
  • Halling, R. E. 1994b. Observations on Boletaceae. Abstracts from the Fifth International Mycological Congress. p. 81.
  • Halling, R. E. 1999. Biogeographic connections between Neotropical agaric fungi and the temperate zones. Int. Bot. Congress, abstract # 4471.
  • Halling, R. E., A. E. Franco, and G. M. Mueller. 1994. Agaricales of Costa Rican Quercus Forests. Poster and oral presentation at the Latin America Botanical Congress, October 1994, Mar del Plata, Argentina.
  • Halling, R. E. 1997. Diversity and composition of Agaricales (Fungi: Basidiomycetes) in Costa Rican Oak Forests. ATB/OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts. p. 65
  • Halling, R. E. and G. M. Mueller. 1997. Diversity and composition of Agaricales in Costa Rican oak forests. Inoculum 48(3): 13 (Abstr.).
  • Mata Greenwood, J. L. 1997. Agaricales of the lower western slope of Volcan Poas. ATB/OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts. p. 82-83.
  • Mata Hildago, M. and G. M. Mueller. 1997. Survey of the macrofungi from the Guanacaste Conservation Area (GCA), Costa Rica. ATB/OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts. p. 82.
  • Mueller, G. M. 1994. Neotropical Holobasidiomycetes: A preliminary assessment of biodiversity and distribution based on studies in Costa Rica and Colombia - Introduction. Abstracts from the Fifth International Mycological Congress. p. 150.
  • Mueller, G. M. and J. P. Schmit. 1997. Quantitative sampling documents high diversity of macrofungi in Costa Rican Quercus forests. ATB/OTS Symposium and Annual Meeting Abstracts. p. 88.
  • Mueller, G. M., Q.-X. Wu, Y. Huang, and S. guo. 1999. Biogeographic relationships between North American and Chinese macrofungi. Int. Bot. Congress, abstract # 6065.
  • Schmit, J. P. and G. M. Mueller. 1995a. Diversity of macromycetes in temperate and tropical oak forests. Inoculum 46(3): 37. (Abstr.)
  • Schmit, J. P. and G. M. Mueller. 1995b. Fungal diversity in temperate and tropical oak forests. Abstracts of the XII Congress of European Mycologists. p. 53.
  • Wu, Q.-X. and G. M. Mueller. 1994. A preliminary study on Cantharellus and Craterellus of Costa Rica. Abstracts from the Fifth International Mycological Congress. p. 246.